Part 7: Table Constraints

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Theoretical Questions

Table Constraint

The Table constraint (also called the Extension constraint) specifies the list of solutions (tuples) to which a vector of variables can be fixed.

More precisely, given an array X containing n variables, and an array T of size m × n, this constraint holds:

\exists i: \forall j: T_{i,j} = X_j

That is, each row of the table is a valid way of fixing X.

The following table with five tuples and four variables will be used as an example for the sequel of this part.

Tuple index X[0] X[1] X[2] X[3]
1 0 1 2 3
2 0 0 3 2
3 2 1 0 3
4 3 2 1 2
5 3 0 1 1

In this example, X = {2, 1, 0, 3} is valid, but not X = {4, 3, 3, 3} as there is no such row in the table.

Many algorithms exist for filtering Table constraints.

One of the fastest filtering algorithms nowadays is Compact Table (CT) [CT2016]. In this exercise you will implement a simple version of CT.

CT works in two steps:

  1. Compute the list of supported tuples. A tuple T[i] is supported if, for each index j of the tuple, the domain of the variable X[j] contains the value T[i][j].
  2. Filter the domains. For each variable X[j] and value v in the domain of X[j]: v can be removed if it is not used by any supported tuple.

Your task is to finish the implementation in

TableCT maintains for each variable-value pair an array of bitsets:

private BitSet[][] supports;

where supports[j][v] is the (bit)set containing the supported tuple indices for X[j]=v.


Given the previous example where X[0] has the domain {0, 1, 3}, some of the the values of supports are: supports[0][0] = {1, 2}, supports[0][1] = {}, and supports[0][3] = {4,5}.

From this we can infer two things. First, the value 1 does not support any tuple indices, so it can be removed from the domain of X[0]. Additionally, given the union over all tuple indices supported by values in the domain of X[0], the tuple index 3 is not supported by any value in the domain of X[0]: the tuple index 3 can be removed from all bitsets in supports.

Continuing with the same example and where X[2] has the domain {0, 1}, we see that tuples with indices 1 and 2 are not supported by any value in the domain of X[2]; the tuples with indices 1 and 2 can therefore be removed from all bitsets in supports. From this, we can infer that the value 0 can be removed from the domain of variable X[0] as the tuple indices the value supported are no longer supported by a variable (namely X[2]).

Using Bitsets

You may have assumed that the type of supports would have been List<Integer>[][] supportedByVarVal. This is not the approach used by CT.

CT uses the concept of bitsets. A bitset is an array-like data structure that stores bits. Each bit is accessible by its index. A bitset is in fact composed of an array of Long, which we in this context refer to as a word. Each of these words stores 64 bits from the bitset.

Using this structure is convenient for our goal:

  • The tuple with tuple index i becomes the i`th bit of the bitset and is encoded as a `1 if the tuple is supported, and otherwise it is encoded as a 0. In the traditional list/array representation, each supported tuple requires 32 bits to be represented.
  • Computing the intersection and union of bitsets (and these are the main operations that will be made on supportedByVarVal) is very easy, thanks to the usage of bitwise operators included in all modern CPUs.

Java provides a default implementation of bitsets in the class BitSet, which we will use in this exercise. We encourage you to read its documentation before continuing.

A Basic Implementation

You will implement a version of CT that makes no use of the stateful structure (therefore it is probably much less efficient than the real CT algorithm).

You have to implement the propagate() method of the class TableCT. All class variables have already been initialized for you.

You “simply” have to compute, for each call to propagate():

  • The tuples supported by each variable, which are the union of the tuples supported by the values in the domain of the variable.
  • The intersection of the tuples supported by each variable. This intersection is the set of globally supported tuples.
  • You can now intersect the set of globally supported tuples with each variable-value pair in supports. If the value supports no tuples (i.e., if the intersection is empty), then the value can be removed.

Make sure your implementation passes all the tests

[CT2016]Demeulenaere, J., Hartert, R., Lecoutre, C., Perez, G., Perron, L., Régin, J.-C., & Schaus, P. (2016). Compact-table: Efficiently filtering table constraints with reversible sparse bit-sets. International Conference on Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming, pp. 207-223. Springer. (PDF)

Eternity Problem

Fill in all the gaps in order to solve the Eternity II problem.

Your task is to finish the implementation in

  • Create the table.
  • Model the problem using Table constraints.
  • Search for a feasible solution using branching combinators.